The Dharmapada in a Practical Order - Part II
The Buddhist Yogi C. M. Chen
IV. Sow the Bodhicitta Seeds
As Bodhicitta is emphasized by the Mahayanists and the Dharmapada
pertains to the Hinayana, hence we do not find even a single verse pertaining
to this subject. Nevertheless, among the doctrines of the Theravada School
of Hinayana we can find some applicable stanzas in the Karaniya Metta Sutra.
The following two extra numbers are extracts from this text:
Extra No. 1. "May all living creatures and beings possessed of passion,
taking all such creatures and beings as a whole, whether long bodied or
huge bodied or medium size bodied, whether visible or not, whether living
nearby or far away, whether already born, to be born or are being born,
be free from sorrow! Be free from suffering! and be happiness-full!"
Extra No. 2. "May one at no place be deceived by another, be hurt by
another, be disgraced by another! May the one or the other be free from
sorrow caused by one another's cruel bodily and verbal action or thought!
Just as the mother who considers care of her only child greater than her
own life, in the same way may one extend "metta" in comparable and unlimited
loving kindness on all beings and creatures."
V. Irrigate with Mercy Water
Ahimsa or Non-injury is emphasized by Buddhists who are followers
of both Hinayana and Mahayana. However, great compassion is not limited
only to this virtue. Readers are advised to read and practice those doctrines
of great mercy found in the North tradition canons.
263. (184) Long-suffering patience is highest asceticism, Nirvana is
supreme, say the Buddhas. For he is not a recluse who harms another, nor
is he an ascetic who molests others.
264. (5) Hatreds never cease by hatred in this world. By love alone
they cease. This is an ancient Law.
265. (227) It's an old saying, O Atula! It is not only of today. They
blame him who sits silent, they blame him who speaks much, they also blame
him who speaks little. There is no one who is not blamed in this world.
266. (228) There never was, there never will be, nor is there now, a
person who is always blamed or always praised.
267. (197) Ah! happily, let us live benevolent amongst the hateful;
amidst hateful men let us dwell benevolent.
268. (300) The disciples of Gautama are always wide awake and watchful,
and their minds ever delight in compassion day and night.
269. (406) Him I call indeed a Brahman who is friendly amongst the hostile,
and peaceful among the attached.
270. (142) He who, though richly adorned, lives in peace, subdued, controlled,
certain, pure, laying aside the cudgel towards all living beings, is indeed
a Brahman, an ascetic, a monk.
271. (405) Him I call indeed a Brahman who has laid aside the cudgel
towards beings, whether feeble or strong, and neither kills nor causes
others to kill.
272. (51) Like a beautiful flower, full of colour, but without scent,
are the fair but fruitless words of him who does not act accordingly.
273. (52) Like a beautiful flower, full of color and full of scent,
are the pure and fruitful words of him who acts accordingly.
274. (53) As from a heap of flowers many a garland is made, even so
many good deeds should be done by one born a mortal.
275. (56) Of little account is the fragrance of Tagara or sandal-wood.
The fragrance of the virtuous that rises up to the gods is the highest.
276. (77) Let him advise, instruct, and shield one from evil. A delight
is he to the good, a vexation to the wicked.
277. (368) The Bhikshu who abides in loving-kindness and is pleased
with Buddha's teaching, attains to that state of peace and happiness and
the stilling of conditioned things.
278. (390) It advantages a Brahman not a little if he holds his mind
back from that (non-retaliation). When the mind is weaned from things dear,
and the intent to harm ceases, then and only then sorrow subsides.
279. (332) Happy in this world is ministering to mother, happy too is
ministering unto father, happy too is ministering unto the Noble Ones.
280. (303) A man who is full of faith and virtue, possessed of repute
and wealth, is everywhere respected in whatever land he travels.
281. (224) One should speak the truth, one should not be angry, one
should give from scanty store to him who asks. By these three things one
may attain the world of the gods.
282. (108) In the world whatever gift or alms a person seeking merit
should offer for a whole yearall that is not worth a single quarter of
that better offering, reverence for the upright.
283. (225) Those sages who do no injury, who are ever restrained in
body, go to the Deathless State, where, having gone, they sorrow no more.
VI. Manured by Dhyana
In order to make the mental force strong enough to hold every positive
practice of the right Dharma, the crying need is Dhyana as has been personally
taught by our Lord Gautama not only among the Three Knowledges, but among
the Five Roots (Pancendriyani), the Five Powers (Pancabalani), the Four
Steps to Supernatural Power (Catur-Raddhipada), The Seven Characteristics
of Bodhi (Sapta-Bodhyanga) and the Eightfold Right Path (Aryamarga).
One who reads the verses under this classification should recognize
the necessity, importance and advantage of Dhyana and be driven to put
them into execution without delay.
Those scholars who preach well but whose characters have not themselves
been changed through realization and supernatural powers are lacking only
in Dhyana. Even worse are those Ch'anists whose knowledge is kept between
their lips and who speak against supernatural powers under the pretext
of fetters because they have not gotten them themselves, all because of
their own non-Dhyana practice.
Inasmuch as the following verses are not a full teaching of Dhyana,
for the sake of practice one must research the practical methods of Dhyana
in other sources on Buddhist meditation. My book "Buddhist Meditation:
Systematic and Practical" may be of useful reference to you.
284. (80) Irrigators lead the water; fletchers fashion the shafts; carpenters
bend the wood; the wise control themselves.
285. (276) You yourselves should make an effort. The Tathagatas are
only teachers. The meditative ones who enter the way are delivered from
the bonds of Mara.
286. (81) As a solid rock is not shaken by the wind; even so the wise
are not ruffled by praise or blame.
287. (82) Even as a lake, deep, extremely clear, and unperturbed, so
are the wise perfectly pleased after hearing the Teachings.
288. (83) The good renounce (lusting for) everything; the saintly speak
not with cravings of desire. Touched by happiness or pain, the wise exhibit
neither elation nor depression.
289. (94) Such steadfast ones whose senses are subdued like steeds well-trained
by a charioteer and he whose pride is destroyed and is free from corruption
are held dear even by the Gods.
290. (96) Calm is his mind, calm is his speech, calm is his deed, who,
having obtained true knowledge, is wholly freed, perfectly peaceful and
291. (320) As an elephant in battlefield withstands the arrows shot
from a bow, even so shall I endure abuse, for most people are vicious.
292. (380) Self indeed is the saviour of self. Self indeed is one's
refuge. Control therefore your own self as a merchant curbs a noble steed.
293. (321) They lead the trained (horses or elephants) to crowds. The
king mounts the trained. Best among men are the trained who endure abuse.
294. (3) "He abused me, he beat me, he defeated me, he robbed me"the
hatred of those who cherish such thoughts is not appeased.
295. (4) "He abused me, he beat me, he defeated me, he robbed me"the
hatred of those who do not cherish such thoughts is appeased.
296. (39) If a man's thoughts are not wetted (by lust), if he is not
affected (by hatred), and he has discarded both good and evil, then there
is no fear for him while he is watchful.
297. (26) The ignorant, foolish folk indulge in heedlessness; but the
wise man guards earnestness as the greatest treasure.
298. (33) As a flectcher straightens an arrow, the wise man straightens
his flickering, fickle mind, difficult to guard, difficult to control.
299. (21) Heedfulness is the path to immortality, thoughtlessness is
the path to death. The heedful do not die, the heedless are as if dead
300. (249) People give according to their faith and according to their
pleasure. If a man frets about the food and drink given to others, he will
not attain Concentration either by day or by night.
301. (285) Cut off your craving as an autumn lily with your hand. Cultivate
the very path of Peace. Nirvana has been preached by the Auspicious One.
302. (20) If a man recites few sacred texts but acts in accordance with
the Teaching, and forsaking lust, hatred and ignorance, possesses true
knowledge with mind totally freed, clinging to naught here and hereafter,
he shares the blessings of a recluse.
303. (19) If a man recites many sacred texts but acts not accordingly,
that heedless man is like a cowherd counting another's kine and he has
no share in the blessings of a recluse.
304. (42) Whatever (harm) a foe may do to a foe, or a hater to a hater,
an ill-directed mind can do one still greater (harm).
305. (296) The disciples of Gautama are always wide awake and watchful,
and they always concentrate on the "Buddha-meditation" by day and night.
306. (297) The disciples of Gautama are always wide awake and watchful,
and they always concentrate on the "Dharma-meditation" by day and night
307. (298) The disciples of Gautama are always wide awake and watchful,
and they always concentrate on the "Sangha-meditation" by day and night.
308. (299) The disciples of Gautama are always wide awake and watchful,
and they always concentrate on the "Body-meditation" by day and night.
309. (157) If a man holds himself dear, he should protect himself well.
During, at least, one of the three watches the wise man should keep vigil.
310. (112)Though a man should live a hundred years, dull and inert,
yet better indeed is the single day's life of one who strives with might
311. (322) Excellent are trained mules, and so are thoroughbreds of
Sind and of noble elephants; but better still is he who tames himself.
312. (326) Formerly this mind went wandering as it liked, where it wished,
as it listed. Today, with attentiveness, I shall completely hold it in
check as a rider controls with his hook a rutting elephant.
313. (15) As a man instructs others, so should he himself act. If he
himself is fully controlled, he may control others; for difficult, indeed,
314. (143) Is there found in this world any man who restrained by modesty,
avoids reproach as a thoroughbred horse avoids the whip?
315. (34) Like a fish that is taken from its watery abode and thrown
upon land, even so does this mind flutter. (Hence) should the realm of
Passions be shunned.
316. (35) The mind is hard to check, rushing wherever it lists; it is
good to control the mind; a controlled mind is conducive to happiness.
317. (378) The Bhikshu, who is calm in body, calm in speech, calm in
mind, who is well-composed, who has spewed out worldly things, is truly
called a "Peaceful One."
318. (110) Though a man should live a hundred years, immoral and uncontrolled;
yet better, indeed, is it to live a single day, virtuous and meditative.
319. (250) He who has this (feeling) fully cut off, uprooted and destroyed,
attains Concentration by day and by night.
320. (36) The mind is very hard to perceive, extremely subtle, flitting
wherever it lists. Let the wise man guard it; a guarded mind is conducive
321. (205) Having tasted the flavour of supreme detachment and (Nirvana's)
Peace, fearless and sinless is he drinking the bliss of Dharma's flavour.
322. (160) Self is the refuge of self: for who else could refuge be?
By a fully controlled self one obtains a refuge which is hard to gain.
323. (379) Censure yourself by self. Self-guarded and mindful, O Bhikshu,
you shall live happily.
324. (22) Distinctly understanding this (that earnestness is the path
of immortality, thoughtlessness the path of death), the wise acts in heedfulness,
rejoice in heedfulness, delighting in the realm of the Ariyas (the elect).
325. (395) Him indeed I call a Brahman who wears dust-heap robes, who
is lean, who is overspread with veins, and who meditates alone in the forest.
326. (23) The ever meditative, the ever steadfastly persevering wise
ones realize Nirvana, free of bonds, the highest happiness.
327. (37) Faring far, wandering alone, bodiless, lying in a cave, is
the mind. Those who subdue it are freed from the bonds of Mara (the tempter).
328. (350) He who delights in subduing (evil) thoughts, he who meditates
on "Impurity," he who is ever mindfulit is he who will make an end of
(craving); he will cut Mara's bond.
329. (114) Though he should live a hundred years, without seeing the
Deathless State; yet better indeed, is the single day's life of one who
sees the Deathless State.
330. (301) The disciples of Gautama are always awake and watchful, and
their minds delight in meditation by day and night.
331. (24) The glory will continually increase of him who is energetic,
mindful, pure in deed, discriminative, self-controlled, right-living, and
332. (27) Indulge not in wantonness, have no intimacy with sensuous
delights. The earnest meditative person obtains abundant bliss.
333. (282) Indeed, from meditation does wisdom spring. Without meditation,
wisdom wanes; Knowing this twofold path of gain and loss, let a man so
conduct himself that wisdom may increase.
334. (323) Surely never by (untamed) vehicles would one reach the untrodden
land, (Nirvana), as does a controlled one through the subdued and well-trained
335. (293) They who always earnestly practice the "body-meditation",
follow not what should not be done and ever do what should be donethe
Defilements of those mindful and reflective ones come to an end.
336. (324) The elephant named Dhanapalaka, with pungent musk flowing,
uncontrollable, eats no morsel when captive. The elephant longs for the
337. (362) He who is controlled in hand, foot, speech, and in the highest
(head), he who delights in meditation, and is composed; he who is solitary
and contented; he is truly called a Bhikshu.
338. (414) Him I call indeed a Brahman who has transgressed this quagmire,
this difficult path, the ocean of life (Samsara), and delusion; he who
has crossed and gone beyond, who is meditative, free from craving and doubts,
who, clinging to nought, has attained Nirvana.
339. (387) The sun is bright by day, the moon shines by night; the warrior
shines when armoured, the Brahman shines when meditating, but the Buddha
shines in glory all day and night.
340. (188) To many a refuge do men go when tormented by fear, to hills
and woods, to gardens, trees and shrines.
VII. Blooming of the Wisdom Flower
When we read the verses under this classification we learn that
to discern between rising and falling, to subdue Mara, to overcome all
doubts, to lead the way to Nirvana, all depend upon the Right Wisdom. This
Right Wisdom is not a Fool's Paradise as saying that "all roads lead to
Rome," nor is it kept like a serpent skillfully keeping a self-centered
thought to hurt others, nor is it a concept of a spirit, divine-self, consciousness,
subconscious, mental philosophy or ideology which is not really free from
idols of the tribe, the market-place, and the theatre. In Hinayana at least
one can meet face to face the concrete non-personal egoism and be truly
called a wise man.
All the different degrees of Buddhist victors in a fruitful position
are determined only by their different wisdoms. Readers are advised to
read about the wisdom of the three yanas in other sources in order to first
establish their right view. If this right view is not firmly grounded,
even if one were to repeat the verses from time to time and accomplish
deep Dhyana, you would not be able to get the actual realization of wisdom
which is beyond all worldly intelligence and heavenly meditation.
341. (141) Not wandering naked, nor matted locks, nor filth, fasting,
nor lying on the ground, nor dust and dirt, nor squatting on the heels,
can purify a mortal who has not overcome doubts.
342. (43) What neither mother nor father nor any other relative could
doa well-directed mind does, and thereby elevates one.
343. (260) A man is not an elder because his head is grey; his age may
be ripe, but he is called "old-in-vain."
344. (189) But that (mountains and forests) is not a safe refuge, that
is not the best refuge; a man is not delivered from all pains after having
gone to that refuge.
345. (144) Like a thoroughbred horse touched by the whip, be strenuous
and be filled with religious emotion. By confidence, by virtue, by effort,
by concentration, by investigation of the Truth, by being endowed with
knowledge and conduct, and by being mindful, get rid of this unlimited
346. (152) A man who has learnt little, grows old like an ox; his flesh
grows but his knowledge does not grow.
347. (11) They who imagine the real in the unreal and see the unreal
in the real, never arrive at the real but abide in the pasture-ground of
348. (60) Long is the night to the wakeful, long is the road to him
who is weary, long is Samsara to the foolish who does not know the Sublime
349. (164) The insensible man who on account of false views, scorns
the Teaching of the Worthy, the Noble, and the Righteous, bears fruit only
for self destruction, like the fruits of the Kashta reed.
350. (63) A fool who thinks that he is a fool is for that very reason
a wise man. The fool who thinks that he is wise is called a fool indeed.
351. (64) Though all his life a fool associates with a wise man, he
will no more understand the Dharma than a spoon perceives the taste of
352. (278) "All existing things are involved in suffering." When one
discerns this with wisdom, one is then disgusted with ill. This is the
Path to Purity.
353. (279) "All existing things are unreal." When one discerns this
with wisdom, one is then disgusted with ill. This is the Path to Purity.
354. (280) The idler who strives not when he should strive, who though
young and strong is slothful, whose will and thought are weak and who is
lazy, does not realize the Path to wisdom.
355. (65) Though for only a moment an intelligent person associates
with a wise man, he quickly understands the Dharma as the tongue perceives
the taste of the soup.
356. (111) Though a man should live a hundred years with no knowledge
and no control; yet better, indeed, is the single day's life of one who
is wise and meditative.
357. (392) One should devoutly reverence the person from whom one has
come to understand the Doctrine as preached by the Full Enlightened One,
as a Brahman reveres the sacrificial fire.
358. (229) Examining day by day, the intelligent praises him who is
of flawless character, wise and endowed with knowledge and virtue.
359. (38) He whose mind is not steadfast, who knows not the Noble Doctrine,
whose faith wavers, will never have perfect wisdom.
360. (40) Realizing that this body is (as fragile) as a jar, establishing
this mind (as firm) as a (fortified city), one should attack Mara with
the weapon of wisdom; one should guard his conquest, and be without attachment.
361. (106) Though one should make an offering of a thousand (pieces
of money) month after month for a hundred years; yet, if only for a moment
one would honor a (Saint) who has perfected himselfthat homage is, indeed,
better than a century of sacrifice.
362. (382) That Bhikshu who, while still young, devotes himself to the
Buddha's Teaching, illumines this world as does the moon freed from a cloud.
363. (158) One should first establish oneself in what is proper. Only
then should one instruct another. Such a wise man will not be reproached.
364. (403) Him I call indeed a Brahman whose knowledge is deep, who
is wise, who is skilled in distinguishing the right and wrong way, and
who has reached the highest goal.
365. (393) One does not become a Brahman by platted hair, nor by family,
nor by birth. He in whom there exists both Truth and Righteousness is pure
and a Brahman.
366. (277) "All existing things are transient." When one discerns this
with wisdom, then one is disgusted with ill. This is the path to Purity.
367. (411) Him I call indeed a Brahman who has no longings, who, through
knowledge, is free from doubts and who has plunged into the Deathless (Nirvana).
368. (419) Him I call indeed a Brahman who, in every way, knows the
death and rebirth of beings and who is detached, well gone and enlightened.
369. (372) Without knowledge there is no meditation; without meditation
there is no knowledge: he who has both knowledge and meditation is near
370. (273) The best of paths is the Eightfold Path; the best of Truths
are the Four Sayings; the best of conditions is Passionless (Nirvana);
the best of men is the Seeing One.
371. (274) This is the only Way. There is no other that leads to purity
of vision. Follow this Path. So will you bewilder Mara.
372. (275) Entering upon that path you will make an end of pain. Having
learnt, I have taught you the path that removes the thorns.
373. (198) Ah! Happily do we dwell in good health amongst the ailing;
amongst ailing men we dwell in good health.
374. (199) Ah! Happily do we dwell without yearning (for sensual pleasures)
amongst them who yearn (for them). Amidst those who yearn (for them) we
dwell without yearning.
375. (200) Ah! Happily do we dwellwe who have no impediments. We shall
be like the Radiant Gods, feeding on joy.
376. (206) Good is the sight of Ariyas (the noble); their company is
ever happy; by not seeing fools one will be ever happy.
377. (333) Happy is virtue lasting to old age, happy is steadfast confidence,
happy is the acquisition of wisdom, happy is abstinence from evil.
378. (54) The perfume of flowers does not travel against the wind, nor
does the fragrance of sandal-wood, Tagara, and jasmine. The fragrance of
the virtuous travels even against the wind; the virtuous man pervades every
379. (115) Though a man should live a hundred years, not seeing the
Truth Sublime; yet better, indeed, is the single day's life of one who
sees the Truth Sublime.
380-381. (58, 59) As upon a heap of rubbish thrown on the highway, a
sweet-smelling and charming lotus may grow, even so, amongst the rubbish
of beings, a disciple of the Fully Enlightened One outshines in wisdom
the blind worldlings.
382. (364) The Bhikshu who dwells in the Dharma, who delights in the
Dharma, who meditates on the Dharma, who well remembers the Dharma, does
not fall away from the Dharma sublime.
383. (100) Better than a thousand useless words, is a single useful
sentence, hearing which one is pacified.
384. (113) Though a man should live a hundred years, without seeing
the rise and fall, yet better, indeed, is the single day's life of one
who sees the rise and fall.
385. (383) Strive and cleave the stream. Discard, O Brahman, sense-desires.
Knowing the destruction of life's constituents, be, O Brahman, a knower
of the Uncreated (Nirvana).
386. (338) Just as a tree though it be cut down springs up again if
its roots are uninjured and firm; even so while latent craving is not footed
out, this sorrow springs up again and again.
387. (354) The gift of Truth excels all gifts; the flavor of Truth excels
all flavors; the delight in Truth excels all delights; He who has destroyed
craving overcomes all sorrows.
388. (70) A fool may eat his food month after month with a Kusa-grass
blade (like an ascetic), but he is not worth a sixteenth part of those
who have comprehended the Truth.
389. (203) Hunger is the greatest disease, the body aggregates the cause
of the greatest sorrow. Knowing this as it really is (the wise realize)
Nirvana, the bliss supreme.
390. (217) Whoso is perfect in virtue and vision, is established in
the Dharma, has realized the Truth, and fulfills his own dutieshim do
folk hold dear.
391. (84) Neither for the sake of self nor for the sake of another (a
wise man does any wrong). He should not desire sons, wealth, or kingdom
(and do any evil). By unjust means he should not desire his success. Such
a one is indeed virtuous, wise, and righteous.
392. (201) Victory breeds hatred; the defeated live in pain. Happily
the peaceful live, giving up victory and defeat.
393. (369) Empty this boat, O Bhikshu! If emptied by you it will move
swiftly. Cutting out lust and hatred, you will thereby go to Nirvana.
394. (49) As a bee without harming the flower, its color or scent, flies
away, collecting only the honey, even so should the sage wander in the
395. (107) Though a man may tend the (sacred) fire in the forest for
a century, yet, if only for a moment he would honor a (Saint), that homage
is, indeed, better than a century of sacrifice.
396. (79) He who imbibes the Dharma lives happily. With a tranquil mind
the wise man ever delights in the Dharma, revealed by the Ariyas (Buddhas).
397. (76) Should one see a wise man who, as if indicating a treasure,
points out faults and reproves, associate with such a wise person; it will
be better, not worse, for him who follows such a person.
398. (259) A man is not "versed in the Dharma" merely because he speaks
much. He who hears little and sees the Truth mentally is, indeed, "versed
in the Dharma." He is not heedless of the Dharma.
VIII. Ripening of the Buddha-fruit
The Three Yanas each have their own fruit. Even if all the verses
under this classification are actually realized, they would not be enough
to get the Arhat Fruit. The reason for this is that within all the verses
of the entire Dharmapada Sutra, there are few verses which teach about
non-personal egoism which is the philosophic source of Hinayana. Unless
and until the wisdom of this Truth has been matured in its unsurpassable
realization, there is no possibility for one to achieve any of the results
of the four degrees of the Arhat, much less the ten stages (or Bhumi) of
a Bodhisattva. In Mahayana, each of the ten Bodhisattva Bhumi has its own
special wisdom which distinguishes it from other stages, and without the
accumulation of all these wisdoms it is not possible to attain full Enlightenment.
Everything has its three positionsCause (seeds), Course (flowers) and
Consequence (fruits). The nature of all water in the whole enlightened
ocean is wetness; one drop of the same ocean is also wet. A small animal
as a sparrow has its inner organs the same as those of a great beast. Therefore,
if we treat the Dharmapada as a whole independent system, all the verses
could be placed within the three-position classification without doubt.
The wise readers learn and study more of the doctrines of Mahayana and
399. (179) He whose conquest (of passion) is not turned into defeat,
and no conquered (passion) of his in this world follows him, by what path
will you lure him, that pathless Buddha of limitless sphere?
400. (180) He in whom there is not that entangling, embroiling craving
to lure to any (life), by what path will you lure him, that pathless Buddha
of limitless sphere?
401. (44) Who shall conquer this earth (self) and the realm of Yama,
and this world of the Gods? Who shall find out the well-taught Path of
Virtue, even as an expert (garland-maker) picks out the (right) flower?
402. (45) The disciple will conquer this earth, and the realm of Yama,
and this world of the Gods. A disciple shall find out the well-taught Path
of Virtue even as an expert (garland-maker) picks out the (right) flower?
403. (386) Him I call indeed a Brahman who is meditative, stainless
and settled, who has done his duty and is free from corruption, and who
has attained the highest Goal.
404.-405. (195,196) He who reverences those worthy of reverence, whether
the Buddhas or disciples; he who has overcome passions and has gotten rid
of grief and lamentation; he who reverences such Peaceful and Fearless
Oneshis merit cannot be measured by anyone.
406. (388) Because he has discarded evil, he is called a "Brahman";
Because his conduct is balanced, he is called a "Samana" (ascetic). Since
he has renounced his impurities, he is therefore called a "recluse."
407. (412) Him I call indeed a Brahman who has transcended both good
and bad and the toils as well, who is sorrowless, stainless and pure.
408. (385) Him indeed I call a Brahman for whom there exists neither
the higher nor the farther shore, nor both, who is undistressed and unbound.
409. (422) Him I call indeed a Brahmanthe fearless, the noble, the
hero, the great sage, the conqueror, the desireless, the enlightened.
410. (97) The man who is not credulous, who understands the Uncreated
(Nirvana), who has cut off the link, who has put an end to occasion (of
good and evil), who has vomited all desireshe, indeed, is the noblest
411. (523) Him I call indeed a Brahman who knows his former abodes,
who sees heaven and hell, who has reached the end of births, who, with
superior wisdom, has perfected himself as a Holy Man and who has finished
412. (420) Him I call indeed a Brahman whose destiny neither the Gods
nor Gandhavas nor men know, who has destroyed all Defilements, and who
is an Arhat (saint).
413. (178) Better than sole sovereignty over earth, or better than going
to heaven, better even than lordship over all worlds, is the Fruit of the
Stream-Winner (the reward of the first step in holiness).
414. (193) Hard to find is a thoroughbred man. He is not born everywhere.
Where such a wise man is born that family thrives happily.
415. (255) There is no path through the air; no (true) monk is found
outside (the Buddhist order). Nought in the phenomenal world abides, but
the Awakened (the Buddhas) are never shaken.
416 . (261) He in whom are truth, virtue, harmlessness, restraint, and
control, that wise man who has cast out impurities, is rightly called an
417. (381) Full of joy, full of faith in the Teaching of the Buddha,
the Bhikshu will attain the Peaceful State, the stilling of conditioned
things, the Bliss (supreme).
418. (331) Happy are friends when need arises; Happy is contentment
with just this and that; Happy is merit when life is at an end; Happy is
the destruction of all sorrow.
419. (177) The miserly do not go to celestial realms; fools only do
not praise liberality; but the wise man rejoices in giving, and thereby
he becomes happy thereafter.
420. (373) The Bhikshu who has retired to a lonely abode, who has calmed
his mind, who clearly perceives the Doctrine, experiences a joy transcending
that of man.
421. (375) And this becomes the beginning here for a wise Bhikshu: sense-control,
contentment, restraint with regard to the Fundamental Precepts (Patimoksha),
association with noble and energetic friends whose livelihood is pure.
422. (218) He who has developed a wish for the Undeclared (Nirvana),
he whose mind is thrilled (with the Three Fruits), he whose mind is not
bound by material pleasures, such a person is called "One Bound Upstream."
423. (374) As soon as he has grasped the origin and passing away of
the elements of the body, he assuredly experiences the joy and happiness
which belong to those who know the immortal.
To sum up the meaning of all the above eight steps, I would like
to offer a few reasons for them. One who can throw away all worldly things
is only compelled by Death, the idea of Impermanence. That is why this
is stressed until full Renunciation is reached. When attachments lose their
attractive force, when one comes to hate them from within, attachment might
arise again through lovely sense-objects without. Hence a wall of Silas
is the next step which follows. By one's purification alone, one could
not achieve the Bodhi of the Consequence position if you have not first
sowed it in the position of Cause. Without the former steps as a good foundation,
the Bodhicitta would be false. When the Bodhicitta seed has been sown,
if one did not put it into execution and irrigate it with Mercy Water,
it would not grow up. Samatha or Dhyana is like our shoulders which must
carry the whole load of full Enlightenment; it is central, with the earlier
steps at one end, and the latter steps at the other. It is a special characteristic
virtue of a practitioner which distinguishes him from a scholar. A disturbed
mind will never comprehend the Truth. Non-person egoism is wisdom to liberate
oneself, while non-Dharma egoism is wisdom both for oneself and others
through the good Karma of Salvation. That is why these two-fold egoisms
are the main source of Wisdom through which the Buddha's Fruit is matured.
One who has read all these verses and thinks of these eight steps will
know what in the Dharmapada he has achieved. He will also know what he
should learn more of through other sources of Buddhism throughout its whole
system. My other works may help you to know and recognize the whole Buddhist
system of Three-Yanas-in-One.
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