The Dharmapada in a Practical Order - Part II


The Buddhist Yogi C. M. Chen

IV. Sow the Bodhicitta Seeds

As Bodhicitta is emphasized by the Mahayanists and the Dharmapada pertains to the Hinayana, hence we do not find even a single verse pertaining to this subject. Nevertheless, among the doctrines of the Theravada School of Hinayana we can find some applicable stanzas in the Karaniya Metta Sutra. The following two extra numbers are extracts from this text:

Extra No. 1. "May all living creatures and beings possessed of passion, taking all such creatures and beings as a whole, whether long bodied or huge bodied or medium size bodied, whether visible or not, whether living nearby or far away, whether already born, to be born or are being born, be free from sorrow! Be free from suffering! and be happiness-full!"

Extra No. 2. "May one at no place be deceived by another, be hurt by another, be disgraced by another! May the one or the other be free from sorrow caused by one another's cruel bodily and verbal action or thought! Just as the mother who considers care of her only child greater than her own life, in the same way may one extend "metta" in comparable and unlimited loving kindness on all beings and creatures."

V. Irrigate with Mercy Water

Ahimsa or Non-injury is emphasized by Buddhists who are followers of both Hinayana and Mahayana. However, great compassion is not limited only to this virtue. Readers are advised to read and practice those doctrines of great mercy found in the North tradition canons.

263. (184) Long-suffering patience is highest asceticism, Nirvana is supreme, say the Buddhas. For he is not a recluse who harms another, nor is he an ascetic who molests others.

264. (5) Hatreds never cease by hatred in this world. By love alone they cease. This is an ancient Law.

265. (227) It's an old saying, O Atula! It is not only of today. They blame him who sits silent, they blame him who speaks much, they also blame him who speaks little. There is no one who is not blamed in this world.

266. (228) There never was, there never will be, nor is there now, a person who is always blamed or always praised.

267. (197) Ah! happily, let us live benevolent amongst the hateful; amidst hateful men let us dwell benevolent.

268. (300) The disciples of Gautama are always wide awake and watchful, and their minds ever delight in compassion day and night.

269. (406) Him I call indeed a Brahman who is friendly amongst the hostile, and peaceful among the attached.

270. (142) He who, though richly adorned, lives in peace, subdued, controlled, certain, pure, laying aside the cudgel towards all living beings, is indeed a Brahman, an ascetic, a monk.

271. (405) Him I call indeed a Brahman who has laid aside the cudgel towards beings, whether feeble or strong, and neither kills nor causes others to kill.

272. (51) Like a beautiful flower, full of colour, but without scent, are the fair but fruitless words of him who does not act accordingly.

273. (52) Like a beautiful flower, full of color and full of scent, are the pure and fruitful words of him who acts accordingly.

274. (53) As from a heap of flowers many a garland is made, even so many good deeds should be done by one born a mortal.

275. (56) Of little account is the fragrance of Tagara or sandal-wood. The fragrance of the virtuous that rises up to the gods is the highest.

276. (77) Let him advise, instruct, and shield one from evil. A delight is he to the good, a vexation to the wicked.

277. (368) The Bhikshu who abides in loving-kindness and is pleased with Buddha's teaching, attains to that state of peace and happiness and the stilling of conditioned things.

278. (390) It advantages a Brahman not a little if he holds his mind back from that (non-retaliation). When the mind is weaned from things dear, and the intent to harm ceases, then and only then sorrow subsides.

279. (332) Happy in this world is ministering to mother, happy too is ministering unto father, happy too is ministering unto the Noble Ones.

280. (303) A man who is full of faith and virtue, possessed of repute and wealth, is everywhere respected in whatever land he travels.

281. (224) One should speak the truth, one should not be angry, one should give from scanty store to him who asks. By these three things one may attain the world of the gods.

282. (108) In the world whatever gift or alms a person seeking merit should offer for a whole yearall that is not worth a single quarter of that better offering, reverence for the upright.

283. (225) Those sages who do no injury, who are ever restrained in body, go to the Deathless State, where, having gone, they sorrow no more.  

VI. Manured by Dhyana

In order to make the mental force strong enough to hold every positive practice of the right Dharma, the crying need is Dhyana as has been personally taught by our Lord Gautama not only among the Three Knowledges, but among the Five Roots (Pancendriyani), the Five Powers (Pancabalani), the Four Steps to Supernatural Power (Catur-Raddhipada), The Seven Characteristics of Bodhi (Sapta-Bodhyanga) and the Eightfold Right Path (Aryamarga).

One who reads the verses under this classification should recognize the necessity, importance and advantage of Dhyana and be driven to put them into execution without delay.

Those scholars who preach well but whose characters have not themselves been changed through realization and supernatural powers are lacking only in Dhyana. Even worse are those Ch'anists whose knowledge is kept between their lips and who speak against supernatural powers under the pretext of fetters because they have not gotten them themselves, all because of their own non-Dhyana practice.

Inasmuch as the following verses are not a full teaching of Dhyana, for the sake of practice one must research the practical methods of Dhyana in other sources on Buddhist meditation. My book "Buddhist Meditation: Systematic and Practical" may be of useful reference to you.

284. (80) Irrigators lead the water; fletchers fashion the shafts; carpenters bend the wood; the wise control themselves.

285. (276) You yourselves should make an effort. The Tathagatas are only teachers. The meditative ones who enter the way are delivered from the bonds of Mara.

286. (81) As a solid rock is not shaken by the wind; even so the wise are not ruffled by praise or blame.

287. (82) Even as a lake, deep, extremely clear, and unperturbed, so are the wise perfectly pleased after hearing the Teachings.

288. (83) The good renounce (lusting for) everything; the saintly speak not with cravings of desire. Touched by happiness or pain, the wise exhibit neither elation nor depression.

289. (94) Such steadfast ones whose senses are subdued like steeds well-trained by a charioteer and he whose pride is destroyed and is free from corruption are held dear even by the Gods.

290. (96) Calm is his mind, calm is his speech, calm is his deed, who, having obtained true knowledge, is wholly freed, perfectly peaceful and equipoised.

291. (320) As an elephant in battlefield withstands the arrows shot from a bow, even so shall I endure abuse, for most people are vicious.

292. (380) Self indeed is the saviour of self. Self indeed is one's refuge. Control therefore your own self as a merchant curbs a noble steed.

293. (321) They lead the trained (horses or elephants) to crowds. The king mounts the trained. Best among men are the trained who endure abuse.

294. (3) "He abused me, he beat me, he defeated me, he robbed me"the hatred of those who cherish such thoughts is not appeased.

295. (4) "He abused me, he beat me, he defeated me, he robbed me"the hatred of those who do not cherish such thoughts is appeased.

296. (39) If a man's thoughts are not wetted (by lust), if he is not affected (by hatred), and he has discarded both good and evil, then there is no fear for him while he is watchful.

297. (26) The ignorant, foolish folk indulge in heedlessness; but the wise man guards earnestness as the greatest treasure.

298. (33) As a flectcher straightens an arrow, the wise man straightens his flickering, fickle mind, difficult to guard, difficult to control.

299. (21) Heedfulness is the path to immortality, thoughtlessness is the path to death. The heedful do not die, the heedless are as if dead already.

300. (249) People give according to their faith and according to their pleasure. If a man frets about the food and drink given to others, he will not attain Concentration either by day or by night.

301. (285) Cut off your craving as an autumn lily with your hand. Cultivate the very path of Peace. Nirvana has been preached by the Auspicious One.

302. (20) If a man recites few sacred texts but acts in accordance with the Teaching, and forsaking lust, hatred and ignorance, possesses true knowledge with mind totally freed, clinging to naught here and hereafter, he shares the blessings of a recluse.

303. (19) If a man recites many sacred texts but acts not accordingly, that heedless man is like a cowherd counting another's kine and he has no share in the blessings of a recluse.

304. (42) Whatever (harm) a foe may do to a foe, or a hater to a hater, an ill-directed mind can do one still greater (harm).

305. (296) The disciples of Gautama are always wide awake and watchful, and they always concentrate on the "Buddha-meditation" by day and night.

306. (297) The disciples of Gautama are always wide awake and watchful, and they always concentrate on the "Dharma-meditation" by day and night .

307. (298) The disciples of Gautama are always wide awake and watchful, and they always concentrate on the "Sangha-meditation" by day and night.

308. (299) The disciples of Gautama are always wide awake and watchful, and they always concentrate on the "Body-meditation" by day and night.

309. (157) If a man holds himself dear, he should protect himself well. During, at least, one of the three watches the wise man should keep vigil.

310. (112)Though a man should live a hundred years, dull and inert, yet better indeed is the single day's life of one who strives with might and main.

311. (322) Excellent are trained mules, and so are thoroughbreds of Sind and of noble elephants; but better still is he who tames himself.

312. (326) Formerly this mind went wandering as it liked, where it wished, as it listed. Today, with attentiveness, I shall completely hold it in check as a rider controls with his hook a rutting elephant.

313. (15) As a man instructs others, so should he himself act. If he himself is fully controlled, he may control others; for difficult, indeed, is self-control.

314. (143) Is there found in this world any man who restrained by modesty, avoids reproach as a thoroughbred horse avoids the whip?

315. (34) Like a fish that is taken from its watery abode and thrown upon land, even so does this mind flutter. (Hence) should the realm of Passions be shunned.

316. (35) The mind is hard to check, rushing wherever it lists; it is good to control the mind; a controlled mind is conducive to happiness.

317. (378) The Bhikshu, who is calm in body, calm in speech, calm in mind, who is well-composed, who has spewed out worldly things, is truly called a "Peaceful One."

318. (110) Though a man should live a hundred years, immoral and uncontrolled; yet better, indeed, is it to live a single day, virtuous and meditative.

319. (250) He who has this (feeling) fully cut off, uprooted and destroyed, attains Concentration by day and by night.

320. (36) The mind is very hard to perceive, extremely subtle, flitting wherever it lists. Let the wise man guard it; a guarded mind is conducive to happiness.

321. (205) Having tasted the flavour of supreme detachment and (Nirvana's) Peace, fearless and sinless is he drinking the bliss of Dharma's flavour.

322. (160) Self is the refuge of self: for who else could refuge be? By a fully controlled self one obtains a refuge which is hard to gain.

323. (379) Censure yourself by self. Self-guarded and mindful, O Bhikshu, you shall live happily.

324. (22) Distinctly understanding this (that earnestness is the path of immortality, thoughtlessness the path of death), the wise acts in heedfulness, rejoice in heedfulness, delighting in the realm of the Ariyas (the elect).

325. (395) Him indeed I call a Brahman who wears dust-heap robes, who is lean, who is overspread with veins, and who meditates alone in the forest.

326. (23) The ever meditative, the ever steadfastly persevering wise ones realize Nirvana, free of bonds, the highest happiness.

327. (37) Faring far, wandering alone, bodiless, lying in a cave, is the mind. Those who subdue it are freed from the bonds of Mara (the tempter).

328. (350) He who delights in subduing (evil) thoughts, he who meditates on "Impurity," he who is ever mindfulit is he who will make an end of (craving); he will cut Mara's bond.

329. (114) Though he should live a hundred years, without seeing the Deathless State; yet better indeed, is the single day's life of one who sees the Deathless State.

330. (301) The disciples of Gautama are always awake and watchful, and their minds delight in meditation by day and night.

331. (24) The glory will continually increase of him who is energetic, mindful, pure in deed, discriminative, self-controlled, right-living, and heedful.

332. (27) Indulge not in wantonness, have no intimacy with sensuous delights. The earnest meditative person obtains abundant bliss.

333. (282) Indeed, from meditation does wisdom spring. Without meditation, wisdom wanes; Knowing this twofold path of gain and loss, let a man so conduct himself that wisdom may increase.

334. (323) Surely never by (untamed) vehicles would one reach the untrodden land, (Nirvana), as does a controlled one through the subdued and well-trained self.

335. (293) They who always earnestly practice the "body-meditation", follow not what should not be done and ever do what should be donethe Defilements of those mindful and reflective ones come to an end.

336. (324) The elephant named Dhanapalaka, with pungent musk flowing, uncontrollable, eats no morsel when captive. The elephant longs for the elephant grove.

337. (362) He who is controlled in hand, foot, speech, and in the highest (head), he who delights in meditation, and is composed; he who is solitary and contented; he is truly called a Bhikshu.

338. (414) Him I call indeed a Brahman who has transgressed this quagmire, this difficult path, the ocean of life (Samsara), and delusion; he who has crossed and gone beyond, who is meditative, free from craving and doubts, who, clinging to nought, has attained Nirvana.

339. (387) The sun is bright by day, the moon shines by night; the warrior shines when armoured, the Brahman shines when meditating, but the Buddha shines in glory all day and night.

340. (188) To many a refuge do men go when tormented by fear, to hills and woods, to gardens, trees and shrines.

VII. Blooming of the Wisdom Flower

When we read the verses under this classification we learn that to discern between rising and falling, to subdue Mara, to overcome all doubts, to lead the way to Nirvana, all depend upon the Right Wisdom. This Right Wisdom is not a Fool's Paradise as saying that "all roads lead to Rome," nor is it kept like a serpent skillfully keeping a self-centered thought to hurt others, nor is it a concept of a spirit, divine-self, consciousness, subconscious, mental philosophy or ideology which is not really free from idols of the tribe, the market-place, and the theatre. In Hinayana at least one can meet face to face the concrete non-personal egoism and be truly called a wise man.

All the different degrees of Buddhist victors in a fruitful position are determined only by their different wisdoms. Readers are advised to read about the wisdom of the three yanas in other sources in order to first establish their right view. If this right view is not firmly grounded, even if one were to repeat the verses from time to time and accomplish deep Dhyana, you would not be able to get the actual realization of wisdom which is beyond all worldly intelligence and heavenly meditation.

341. (141) Not wandering naked, nor matted locks, nor filth, fasting, nor lying on the ground, nor dust and dirt, nor squatting on the heels, can purify a mortal who has not overcome doubts.

342. (43) What neither mother nor father nor any other relative could doa well-directed mind does, and thereby elevates one.

343. (260) A man is not an elder because his head is grey; his age may be ripe, but he is called "old-in-vain."

344. (189) But that (mountains and forests) is not a safe refuge, that is not the best refuge; a man is not delivered from all pains after having gone to that refuge.

345. (144) Like a thoroughbred horse touched by the whip, be strenuous and be filled with religious emotion. By confidence, by virtue, by effort, by concentration, by investigation of the Truth, by being endowed with knowledge and conduct, and by being mindful, get rid of this unlimited suffering.

346. (152) A man who has learnt little, grows old like an ox; his flesh grows but his knowledge does not grow.

347. (11) They who imagine the real in the unreal and see the unreal in the real, never arrive at the real but abide in the pasture-ground of wrong thoughts.

348. (60) Long is the night to the wakeful, long is the road to him who is weary, long is Samsara to the foolish who does not know the Sublime Truth.

349. (164) The insensible man who on account of false views, scorns the Teaching of the Worthy, the Noble, and the Righteous, bears fruit only for self destruction, like the fruits of the Kashta reed.

350. (63) A fool who thinks that he is a fool is for that very reason a wise man. The fool who thinks that he is wise is called a fool indeed.

351. (64) Though all his life a fool associates with a wise man, he will no more understand the Dharma than a spoon perceives the taste of the soup.

352. (278) "All existing things are involved in suffering." When one discerns this with wisdom, one is then disgusted with ill. This is the Path to Purity.

353. (279) "All existing things are unreal." When one discerns this with wisdom, one is then disgusted with ill. This is the Path to Purity.

354. (280) The idler who strives not when he should strive, who though young and strong is slothful, whose will and thought are weak and who is lazy, does not realize the Path to wisdom.

355. (65) Though for only a moment an intelligent person associates with a wise man, he quickly understands the Dharma as the tongue perceives the taste of the soup.

356. (111) Though a man should live a hundred years with no knowledge and no control; yet better, indeed, is the single day's life of one who is wise and meditative.

357. (392) One should devoutly reverence the person from whom one has come to understand the Doctrine as preached by the Full Enlightened One, as a Brahman reveres the sacrificial fire.

358. (229) Examining day by day, the intelligent praises him who is of flawless character, wise and endowed with knowledge and virtue.

359. (38) He whose mind is not steadfast, who knows not the Noble Doctrine, whose faith wavers, will never have perfect wisdom.

360. (40) Realizing that this body is (as fragile) as a jar, establishing this mind (as firm) as a (fortified city), one should attack Mara with the weapon of wisdom; one should guard his conquest, and be without attachment.

361. (106) Though one should make an offering of a thousand (pieces of money) month after month for a hundred years; yet, if only for a moment one would honor a (Saint) who has perfected himselfthat homage is, indeed, better than a century of sacrifice.

362. (382) That Bhikshu who, while still young, devotes himself to the Buddha's Teaching, illumines this world as does the moon freed from a cloud.

363. (158) One should first establish oneself in what is proper. Only then should one instruct another. Such a wise man will not be reproached.

364. (403) Him I call indeed a Brahman whose knowledge is deep, who is wise, who is skilled in distinguishing the right and wrong way, and who has reached the highest goal.

365. (393) One does not become a Brahman by platted hair, nor by family, nor by birth. He in whom there exists both Truth and Righteousness is pure and a Brahman.

366. (277) "All existing things are transient." When one discerns this with wisdom, then one is disgusted with ill. This is the path to Purity.

367. (411) Him I call indeed a Brahman who has no longings, who, through knowledge, is free from doubts and who has plunged into the Deathless (Nirvana).

368. (419) Him I call indeed a Brahman who, in every way, knows the death and rebirth of beings and who is detached, well gone and enlightened.

369. (372) Without knowledge there is no meditation; without meditation there is no knowledge: he who has both knowledge and meditation is near unto Nirvana.

370. (273) The best of paths is the Eightfold Path; the best of Truths are the Four Sayings; the best of conditions is Passionless (Nirvana); the best of men is the Seeing One.

371. (274) This is the only Way. There is no other that leads to purity of vision. Follow this Path. So will you bewilder Mara.

372. (275) Entering upon that path you will make an end of pain. Having learnt, I have taught you the path that removes the thorns.

373. (198) Ah! Happily do we dwell in good health amongst the ailing; amongst ailing men we dwell in good health.

374. (199) Ah! Happily do we dwell without yearning (for sensual pleasures) amongst them who yearn (for them). Amidst those who yearn (for them) we dwell without yearning.

375. (200) Ah! Happily do we dwellwe who have no impediments. We shall be like the Radiant Gods, feeding on joy.

376. (206) Good is the sight of Ariyas (the noble); their company is ever happy; by not seeing fools one will be ever happy.

377. (333) Happy is virtue lasting to old age, happy is steadfast confidence, happy is the acquisition of wisdom, happy is abstinence from evil.

378. (54) The perfume of flowers does not travel against the wind, nor does the fragrance of sandal-wood, Tagara, and jasmine. The fragrance of the virtuous travels even against the wind; the virtuous man pervades every direction.

379. (115) Though a man should live a hundred years, not seeing the Truth Sublime; yet better, indeed, is the single day's life of one who sees the Truth Sublime.

380-381. (58, 59) As upon a heap of rubbish thrown on the highway, a sweet-smelling and charming lotus may grow, even so, amongst the rubbish of beings, a disciple of the Fully Enlightened One outshines in wisdom the blind worldlings.

382. (364) The Bhikshu who dwells in the Dharma, who delights in the Dharma, who meditates on the Dharma, who well remembers the Dharma, does not fall away from the Dharma sublime.

383. (100) Better than a thousand useless words, is a single useful sentence, hearing which one is pacified.

384. (113) Though a man should live a hundred years, without seeing the rise and fall, yet better, indeed, is the single day's life of one who sees the rise and fall.

385. (383) Strive and cleave the stream. Discard, O Brahman, sense-desires. Knowing the destruction of life's constituents, be, O Brahman, a knower of the Uncreated (Nirvana).

386. (338) Just as a tree though it be cut down springs up again if its roots are uninjured and firm; even so while latent craving is not footed out, this sorrow springs up again and again.

387. (354) The gift of Truth excels all gifts; the flavor of Truth excels all flavors; the delight in Truth excels all delights; He who has destroyed craving overcomes all sorrows.

388. (70) A fool may eat his food month after month with a Kusa-grass blade (like an ascetic), but he is not worth a sixteenth part of those who have comprehended the Truth.

389. (203) Hunger is the greatest disease, the body aggregates the cause of the greatest sorrow. Knowing this as it really is (the wise realize) Nirvana, the bliss supreme.

390. (217) Whoso is perfect in virtue and vision, is established in the Dharma, has realized the Truth, and fulfills his own dutieshim do folk hold dear.

391. (84) Neither for the sake of self nor for the sake of another (a wise man does any wrong). He should not desire sons, wealth, or kingdom (and do any evil). By unjust means he should not desire his success. Such a one is indeed virtuous, wise, and righteous.

392. (201) Victory breeds hatred; the defeated live in pain. Happily the peaceful live, giving up victory and defeat.

393. (369) Empty this boat, O Bhikshu! If emptied by you it will move swiftly. Cutting out lust and hatred, you will thereby go to Nirvana.

394. (49) As a bee without harming the flower, its color or scent, flies away, collecting only the honey, even so should the sage wander in the village.

395. (107) Though a man may tend the (sacred) fire in the forest for a century, yet, if only for a moment he would honor a (Saint), that homage is, indeed, better than a century of sacrifice.

396. (79) He who imbibes the Dharma lives happily. With a tranquil mind the wise man ever delights in the Dharma, revealed by the Ariyas (Buddhas).

397. (76) Should one see a wise man who, as if indicating a treasure, points out faults and reproves, associate with such a wise person; it will be better, not worse, for him who follows such a person.

398. (259) A man is not "versed in the Dharma" merely because he speaks much. He who hears little and sees the Truth mentally is, indeed, "versed in the Dharma." He is not heedless of the Dharma.

VIII. Ripening of the Buddha-fruit

The Three Yanas each have their own fruit. Even if all the verses under this classification are actually realized, they would not be enough to get the Arhat Fruit. The reason for this is that within all the verses of the entire Dharmapada Sutra, there are few verses which teach about non-personal egoism which is the philosophic source of Hinayana. Unless and until the wisdom of this Truth has been matured in its unsurpassable realization, there is no possibility for one to achieve any of the results of the four degrees of the Arhat, much less the ten stages (or Bhumi) of a Bodhisattva. In Mahayana, each of the ten Bodhisattva Bhumi has its own special wisdom which distinguishes it from other stages, and without the accumulation of all these wisdoms it is not possible to attain full Enlightenment.

Everything has its three positionsCause (seeds), Course (flowers) and Consequence (fruits). The nature of all water in the whole enlightened ocean is wetness; one drop of the same ocean is also wet. A small animal as a sparrow has its inner organs the same as those of a great beast. Therefore, if we treat the Dharmapada as a whole independent system, all the verses could be placed within the three-position classification without doubt. The wise readers learn and study more of the doctrines of Mahayana and Vajrayana.

399. (179) He whose conquest (of passion) is not turned into defeat, and no conquered (passion) of his in this world follows him, by what path will you lure him, that pathless Buddha of limitless sphere?

400. (180) He in whom there is not that entangling, embroiling craving to lure to any (life), by what path will you lure him, that pathless Buddha of limitless sphere?

401. (44) Who shall conquer this earth (self) and the realm of Yama, and this world of the Gods? Who shall find out the well-taught Path of Virtue, even as an expert (garland-maker) picks out the (right) flower?

402. (45) The disciple will conquer this earth, and the realm of Yama, and this world of the Gods. A disciple shall find out the well-taught Path of Virtue even as an expert (garland-maker) picks out the (right) flower?

403. (386) Him I call indeed a Brahman who is meditative, stainless and settled, who has done his duty and is free from corruption, and who has attained the highest Goal.

404.-405. (195,196) He who reverences those worthy of reverence, whether the Buddhas or disciples; he who has overcome passions and has gotten rid of grief and lamentation; he who reverences such Peaceful and Fearless Oneshis merit cannot be measured by anyone.

406. (388) Because he has discarded evil, he is called a "Brahman"; Because his conduct is balanced, he is called a "Samana" (ascetic). Since he has renounced his impurities, he is therefore called a "recluse."

407. (412) Him I call indeed a Brahman who has transcended both good and bad and the toils as well, who is sorrowless, stainless and pure.

408. (385) Him indeed I call a Brahman for whom there exists neither the higher nor the farther shore, nor both, who is undistressed and unbound.

409. (422) Him I call indeed a Brahmanthe fearless, the noble, the hero, the great sage, the conqueror, the desireless, the enlightened.

410. (97) The man who is not credulous, who understands the Uncreated (Nirvana), who has cut off the link, who has put an end to occasion (of good and evil), who has vomited all desireshe, indeed, is the noblest of men.

411. (523) Him I call indeed a Brahman who knows his former abodes, who sees heaven and hell, who has reached the end of births, who, with superior wisdom, has perfected himself as a Holy Man and who has finished all finishings.

412. (420) Him I call indeed a Brahman whose destiny neither the Gods nor Gandhavas nor men know, who has destroyed all Defilements, and who is an Arhat (saint).

413. (178) Better than sole sovereignty over earth, or better than going to heaven, better even than lordship over all worlds, is the Fruit of the Stream-Winner (the reward of the first step in holiness).

414. (193) Hard to find is a thoroughbred man. He is not born everywhere. Where such a wise man is born that family thrives happily.

415. (255) There is no path through the air; no (true) monk is found outside (the Buddhist order). Nought in the phenomenal world abides, but the Awakened (the Buddhas) are never shaken.

416 . (261) He in whom are truth, virtue, harmlessness, restraint, and control, that wise man who has cast out impurities, is rightly called an "Elder."

417. (381) Full of joy, full of faith in the Teaching of the Buddha, the Bhikshu will attain the Peaceful State, the stilling of conditioned things, the Bliss (supreme).

418. (331) Happy are friends when need arises; Happy is contentment with just this and that; Happy is merit when life is at an end; Happy is the destruction of all sorrow.

419. (177) The miserly do not go to celestial realms; fools only do not praise liberality; but the wise man rejoices in giving, and thereby he becomes happy thereafter.

420. (373) The Bhikshu who has retired to a lonely abode, who has calmed his mind, who clearly perceives the Doctrine, experiences a joy transcending that of man.

421. (375) And this becomes the beginning here for a wise Bhikshu: sense-control, contentment, restraint with regard to the Fundamental Precepts (Patimoksha), association with noble and energetic friends whose livelihood is pure.

422. (218) He who has developed a wish for the Undeclared (Nirvana), he whose mind is thrilled (with the Three Fruits), he whose mind is not bound by material pleasures, such a person is called "One Bound Upstream."

423. (374) As soon as he has grasped the origin and passing away of the elements of the body, he assuredly experiences the joy and happiness which belong to those who know the immortal.

IX. Summary

To sum up the meaning of all the above eight steps, I would like to offer a few reasons for them. One who can throw away all worldly things is only compelled by Death, the idea of Impermanence. That is why this is stressed until full Renunciation is reached. When attachments lose their attractive force, when one comes to hate them from within, attachment might arise again through lovely sense-objects without. Hence a wall of Silas is the next step which follows. By one's purification alone, one could not achieve the Bodhi of the Consequence position if you have not first sowed it in the position of Cause. Without the former steps as a good foundation, the Bodhicitta would be false. When the Bodhicitta seed has been sown, if one did not put it into execution and irrigate it with Mercy Water, it would not grow up. Samatha or Dhyana is like our shoulders which must carry the whole load of full Enlightenment; it is central, with the earlier steps at one end, and the latter steps at the other. It is a special characteristic virtue of a practitioner which distinguishes him from a scholar. A disturbed mind will never comprehend the Truth. Non-person egoism is wisdom to liberate oneself, while non-Dharma egoism is wisdom both for oneself and others through the good Karma of Salvation. That is why these two-fold egoisms are the main source of Wisdom through which the Buddha's Fruit is matured. One who has read all these verses and thinks of these eight steps will know what in the Dharmapada he has achieved. He will also know what he should learn more of through other sources of Buddhism throughout its whole system. My other works may help you to know and recognize the whole Buddhist system of Three-Yanas-in-One.

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